What is Great Circle?
A Great Circle is any circle that circumnavigates the Earth and
passes through the center of the Earth. A great circle always
divides the Earth in half, thus the Equator is a great circle (but
no other latitudes) and all lines
of longitude are great circles.
The shortest distance between any two points on the Earth lies along
a great circle.
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Great circles intersect the center of the Earth
and divide the Earth in half. The shortest distance between any two
locations on the Earth, such as New York City and New Delhi, lies
along a great circle.